Today, injectable vaccines are packaged in two types of containers: (1) vials, either a multi-dose or single-dose; or (2) pre-filled syringes, those filled by the vaccine manufacturer. Vials require manipulation or transfer of the vaccine into an injection device while a pre-filled syringe is supplied as a unit-dose, ready-to-administer syringe. Vials have a total of 12 preparation steps, whereas a pre-filled syringe has a total of four preparation steps. The reduction in number of preparation steps has numerous efficiency and potential worker and patient safety implications.
Additionally, the setting for immunizations in the United States is rapidly changing, as evidenced by more people being immunized in nontraditional settings, most notably in retail-based environments. In the 2010-2011 influenza immunization campaign, approximately 18.5% of adults ages 18 years and older were vaccinated in a retail setting.1
The impact of vaccine packaging has recently been studied in traditional immunization venues.
During the 2009-2010 flu immunization campaign, a time and motion study by Pereira and Bishai of The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health concluded the choice of vaccine packaging will have an impact on the efficiency of the immunization process.2 More specifically, by measuring the difference in preparation time, the study estimated that for every 100 vaccine doses prepared for injection, about one hour of clinician time could be saved by using pre-filled syringes as opposed to multi-dose vials. The economic implication of this efficiency saved about $1.10/dose, excluding the acquisition cost of the vaccine.2 A complete cost analysis would need to factor in not only acquisition costs of the vaccines, but also the opportunity cost of lost clinician or pharmacist time and, in the unlikely event of a safety mishap, any potential costs related to those events. Finally, the study also concluded that when using multi-dose vials there is an increase in potential for problems. The problems cited in the study are also consistent with those indicated by the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease and include, but are not limited to vaccine waste, bacterial contamination, administration errors, storage under inappropriate conditions and reduced vaccine potency.3
In 2011, the Convenient Care Association was interested in studying the impact of vaccine packaging in a retail clinic setting and conducted a pilot program. The pilot program looked at the perceptions of nurse practitioners and physician assistants working in 31 retail health clinics operated by The Little Clinic regarding the preparation and administration of flu vaccine via pre-filled syringes versus multi-dose vials. By assessing providers’ perceptions only, this study differs from Pereira and Bishai’s time-motion study, which recorded actual time and use differences between pre-filled syringes and vials. Below is a discussion of how NPs and PAs perceive providing flu vaccine with pre-filled syringes versus multi-dose vials.
Twenty qualitative phone interviews were conducted with nurse practitioners and physician assistants at The Little Clinic convenient care clinics after they had administered at least ten injections with pre-filled syringes. The normal method of administration is multi-dose vials. The qualitative interviews elicited the following themes:
Fifty-eight written surveys were completed by providers at The Little Clinic convenient care clinics who administer flu vaccine to the public, after they had administered at least 10 injections with pre-filled syringes versus their normal method of administration using multi-dose vials. The survey questions were answered by placing an X on a visual analog scale that consisted of a 10-cm horizontal line. “Pre-filled syringe” was written at the far left side of the 10-cm horizontal line and “multi-dose vial” at the far right side of the line. The mid-point of the line was marked as neutral. When scored, the Xs were given numbers of 5, 4, 3, 2 or 1, defined by where they fell within the line, which was divided into five equal sections. The Xs were scored as 5 or 4, if on the first or second section of the line on the left (indicating pre-filled syringes). The Xs were scored as 3 or neutral if they were in the middle or third section of the line, and 2 or 1 if on the fourth or fifth section of the line (indicating multi-dose vials). The percent, the mean (the average) and the mode (most frequent) follow for each of the questions:
The first three questions on the survey addressed operations:
The next three survey questions addressed safety:
The last three questions on the survey addressed preference/experience:
The perceptions of nurse practitioners and physician assistants as gathered in this study can help guide best clinical practices for delivering immunizations and/or injections in the retail clinic. If new best practices are adopted, external environmental controls are needed to increase adherence. Accreditation organizations should create standards requiring storing and dispensing medications in ready-to-use units. Adoption of pre-filled units will remove the risks inherent in using multi-dose vials, as noted in both this study and The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health study. New standards would provide justification and additional incentive for pharmaceutical companies to redesign their existing offerings — e.g., packaging changes or other necessary designs — in order to meet the standards.
1 2010-2011 Influenza Vaccine Production and Distribution Market Brief, HIDA, September 2011.
2 Pereira, C.C. and Bishai, D. (2010).Vaccine presentation in the USA: Economics of Pre-filled Syringes Versus Multi-dose Vials for Influenza Vaccination. Expert Reviews 9(11): 1343-1349.
3 National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Influenza 2008–2009: ACIP recommendations. www2a.cdc.gov/podcasts/player.asp?f=11041#transcript
This study was funded by a grant from Becton, Dickinson & Co. to the Convenient Care Association. The authors of this study have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or material discussed in this manuscript. An Institutional Review Board was not needed as this was a survey of providers with no identifiers attached to their responses. Special thanks to The Little Clinic and their clinicians for completing the qualitative and written surveys.
About The Little Clinic
Founded in 2003 and headquartered in Brentwood, Tenn., The Little Clinic is a pioneer in customer-focused healthcare with a mission to provide convenient, affordable healthcare and wellness education. A wholly owned subsidiary of The Kroger Co., The Little Clinic healthcare clinics are currently located inside select Kroger stores in Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio; King Soopers in Colorado and Fry’s Food Stores in Arizona. The Little Clinic was awarded The Joint Commission Gold Seal of Approval in 2009 and obtained reaccreditation in 2012. Visit The Little Clinic online at www.thelittleclinic.com, www.facebook.com/thelittleclinic and www.thelittleclinic.blogspot.com.